This is not an exhaustive list, but includes co-occurring challenges that are most commonly found children identified with dyslexia.*
Do you wonder why even though your child’s reading differences are being addressed at school, writing is still a struggle? What about the outbursts you thought were due to frustration over math challenges? Why haven’t they stopped now that your child gets help in math? It’s not unusual for kids to have multiple learning and thinking differences. This is known as co-occurrence. Read more
Students with dyslexia may have problems in written expression, reading comprehension, and mathematics as well as other complicating conditions and/or behaviors.
Besides academic struggles, some students with dyslexia may exhibit other complex conditions and/or behaviors. The most common co-occurring disorders with dyslexia are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific developmental language disorders (Snowling & Stackhouse, 2006, pp. 8–9). Some, though not all, students with dyslexia may also experience symptoms such as anxiety, anger, depression, lack of motivation, or low self-esteem. In such instances, appropriate instructional/referral services need to be provided to ensure each student’s needs are met.
These additional conditions can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of instruction provided to students with dyslexia. Motivation, in particular, has been shown to be critical to the success or failure of instructional practices. Regarding motivation, Torgesen states (as cited in Sedita, 2011), “even technically sound instructional techniques are unlikely to succeed unless we can ensure that, most of the time, students are engaged and motivated to understand what they read” (p. 532). Acknowledging that students with dyslexia must exert extra effort to meet grade-level expectations, all the factors that may affect learning must be considered when identifying and providing instruction for students with dyslexia. ADHD or symptoms of anxiety, anger, depression, or low self-esteem may lower a student’s engagement in learning. Educators and parents should provide students with affirmation and an environment that fosters engagement and success. Read more